agriculturalBiological sensing and circuitry enables agricultural organisms to see and respond to their environment. “Smart” plants could be programmed to identify and respond to multiple threats, such as pathogens, toxins, desiccation, and nutrient availability. Microbes in the rhizome associate with plants and could be engineered to implement similar functions. Finally, the engineering of new chasses that use sunlight to fix carbon dioxide, such as cyanobacteria and algae, could yield low cost routes to renewable carbon-neutral chemicals and fuels as well as meeting global nutritional needs.